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  • 钢结构工程施工质量控制要点
  • 本站编辑:杭州科宝钢业有限公司发布日期:2019-10-27 16:27 浏览次数:
 随着现代经济的不断发展,钢结构工程以其施工速度快、周期短、强度高、便于预制、安装、适用高层大跨度等的优越性已在工程领域广泛应用。而过去,我国大量采用钢筋混凝土结构和预应力混凝土结构,现场工程技术人员比较缺乏钢结构工程的施工经验,施工质量的好坏直接影响工程结构的安全。因而,钢结构工程的质量问题也越来越引起人们的重视,因此加强钢结构工程施工质量控制,具有很重要的现实意义和必要性。
 
 
施工质量控制要点
 
1施工准备......
 
施工准备是建设施工创造必须条件,认真、细致、深入地做好施工准备工作,对充分发挥人的积极因素,合理组织人力、物力,加快工程进度,提供施工质量,节约投资和材料,对顺利完成钢结构建设任务起着重要的作用。
 
1.1认真做好施工图纸的会审和交底工作
 
图纸是工程施工的依据,工程项目技术负责人应组织有关技术人员对图纸进行分工审阅和消化,其目的一是使施工单位和各参建单位熟悉设计图纸,了解工程特点和设计意图,找出需要解决的技术难题,并制定解决方案;二是为了解决图纸中存在的问题,减少图纸的差错,将图纸中的质量隐患消灭在萌芽之中。同时做好技术交底,做好施工和设计的结合、做好钢结构吊装与土建施工、钢结构和混凝土构预制的结合。
 
1.2认真编制钢结构工程施工组织设计
 
施工组织设计是施工单位编制的指导工程施工全过程各项活动的重要综合性技术文件,是一个科学的管理方法。施工单位在编制施工组织和施工方案时,须从人、机、料、法、环五个方面制定切实可行的具体实施细则,落实计划,落实组织人员,落实自检、互检和专检,把容易出现的质量问题全部纳入受控状态,确保方案技术措施得力、可行。在编制和贯彻施工组织设计过程中应做到广泛深入的研究,向施工人员交底,做到人人把关。钢结构工程要针对制作阶段和安装阶段分别编制制作工艺和安装施工组织设计。其中制作工艺内容应包括制作阶段各工序、各分项的质量标准、技术要求,以及为保证产品质量而制订的各项具体措施。钢结构安装工程施工组织设计内容有质量保证体系和技术管理体系的建立、质量、进度控制的措施和方法、施工工期的安排等。
 
2重视钢结构基础工程的质量控制......
 
钢结构基础工程的质量控制一般指钢结构基础预埋螺栓的质量控制,预埋螺栓是整个工程施工的第一步,也是非常关键的一步,是整个工程的基础。施工基础预埋螺栓时首先熟悉图纸,了解图纸的意图,应制作安装模板。预埋螺栓用两安装模板及钢筋定位在柱子的主筋和模板上,保证预埋螺栓不受土建浇注混凝土施工而移位。这样每组螺栓之间的间距、高低可控制在允许的误差范围内;同时,保护好螺栓丝扣,在混凝土浇筑时不被损坏。土建工程完工后,用经纬仪和水准仪对地脚螺栓的标高、轴线进行复查,并做好记录。并交下一道工序验收。  
 
 
3 钢结构制作工程质量控制......
 
钢结构工程的施工通常要经过工厂制作和现场安装两个阶段。钢结构工程有大部分时间是在工厂车间内部进行,由于钢结构构件在工厂内加工制造的质量好坏,对钢结构工程的现场安装及整体结构的安全稳定至关重要。因此钢结构制作生产厂家必须具备相应企业资质、生产规模、技术能力、机械设备及先进的工艺水平。
 
钢结构一般制作工艺流程分为:放样→下料→拼板→切割→组立→埋弧焊接→钻孔→组装→矫正成型→铆工零配件下料→制作组装→焊接和焊接检验→防锈处理、涂装、编号→构件验收出厂。在钢结构制作中,应根据钢结构制作工艺流程,抓住关键工序进行质量控制,如控制关键零件的加工,主要构件的工艺、措施,所采用的加工设备、工艺装备等。
 
4 重视焊接工程质量控制......
 
在钢结构制作和安装工程工程中焊接工程是最重要的环节,必须重视焊接工程质量控制。目前,钢结构在生产过程中大部分采用具自动埋弧焊机,部分具备半自动气体保护焊机,个别部位采用手工施焊。
 
焊接质量问题较多存在于手工焊缝,这些问题有:焊瘤、夹渣、气孔、没焊透、咬边、错边、焊缝尺寸偏差大、不用引弧板、焊接变形不矫正、飞溅物清理不净等。鉴于这种情况,钢结构施焊前,对焊条的合格证要进行检查,按说明书要求使用,焊工必须持证上岗证,焊缝表面不得有裂纹、焊瘤,一、二级焊缝不得有气孔、夹渣、弧坑裂纹,一级焊缝不得有咬边、未满焊等缺陷,一、二级焊缝按要求进行无损检测,在规定的焊缝及部位要检查焊工的钢印。不合格的焊缝不得擅自处理,定出修改工艺后再处理,同一部位的焊缝返修次数不宜超过2次。    
 
 
5 钢构件安装质量控制......
 
钢结构在工程制作结束后,进入现场安装。钢结构安装前,应对构件的质量进行检查,构件的永久变形和缺陷超出允许值时,应进行处理。
 
钢柱安装要检查柱底板下的垫铁是否垫实、垫平,防止柱底板下地脚螺栓失稳;控制柱是否垂直和有无位移,安装工程中,在结构尚未形成稳定体系前,应采取临时支护措施。
 
当钢结构安装形成空间固定单元,并进行验收合格后,要求施工单位及时将柱底板和基础顶面的空间用膨胀混凝土二次浇筑密实。最后,还要检查钢结构主体结构的垂直度和整体平面弯曲等。
 
6 钢结构紧固件连接的质量控制......
 
钢结构紧固件连接的质量控制主要强调高强度螺栓连接的质量控制。高强度螺栓连接工程的施工质量的控制从以下几个方面完成:
 
6.1 首先钢结构工程必须注意高强螺栓摩擦面的加工质量及安装前的保护,防止污染、锈蚀。并在安装前进行高强螺栓摩擦面的抗滑移系数试验、检查高强螺栓出厂证明、批号,对不同批号的高强螺栓定期抽做轴力试验。
 
 6.2 高强螺栓安装要求自由穿入,不得敲打和扩孔;因此在钢结构制作时应准备一定的胎架模具以控制其变形,并在构件运输时采取切实可行的固定措施以保证其尺寸稳定性。  
 
6.3 钢结构安装过程中板叠接触面应平整,接触面必须大于75%,边缘缝隙不得大于0.8mm。对高强螺栓安装工艺、包括操作顺序、安装方法、紧固顺序、初拧、终拧进行严格控制检查,拧螺栓的扭力扳手应进行标定等。终拧完毕应逐个检查,对欠拧、超拧的应进行补拧或更换。 
 
 
7 钢结构除锈及涂装工程......
 
钢结构除锈和涂装是目前钢结构工程最易忽视的环节。钢结构除锈分为人工除锈和机械除锈,施工人员要根据图纸要求以及除锈等级采用不同除锈方法。涂刷工程质量的控制应做到在钢结构涂刷前,涂刷的构件表面不得有焊渣、油污、水和毛刺等异物,涂刷遍数和厚度应符合设计要求。对涂装材料必须有合格证,防火涂料涂装工程必须由消防部位批准的施工单位施工。
 
8 彩钢板施工质量控制......
 
彩钢板工程是钢结构工程中另一重要部分。其施工质量的好坏直接影响钢结构工程的使用。目前彩钢板有很多种类。
 
但彩钢板施工问题比较集中,如:彩板接缝、彩板配件制作安装等节点处理不细、不可靠,维护结构渗漏,彩板观感质量不平整、变形、划伤、污染现象等。
 
因此压型彩板安装质量控制主要包括:压型彩板进场后,要进行外观和合格证的检查,并复核与压型板施工安装有关钢构件的安装精度,清除檩条的安装时的焊缝药皮和飞溅物,并涂刷防锈漆进行防腐处理。彩板安装时,要编制合理的安装工艺顺序等。    
 
钢结构工程制作与安装单位如何在施工中实施质量控制,主要是通过有关部门具有质控职能的专职和兼职人员在质量控制中履行自己的职责。其质量控制的方法主要是通过编制和审核有关技术文件、报告、通过现场过程检查和最终检验以及进行必要的试验等方法进行。
With the continuous development of modern economy, steel structure engineering has been widely used in the field of engineering because of its advantages of fast construction speed, short period, high intensity, convenient prefabrication, installation, and application of high floor and large span. In the past, a large number of reinforced concrete structures and prestressed concrete structures were used in our country. Therefore, the quality problem of steel structure engineering also attracts people's attention more and more. Therefore, it is of great practical significance and necessity to strengthen the quality control of steel structure engineering construction.
 
 
 
 
 
Key points of construction quality control
 
 
 
1 construction preparation......
 
 
 
Construction preparation is the construction construction to create the necessary conditions, serious, meticulous, in-depth construction preparation work, to give full play to the positive factors of people, reasonable organization of human and material resources, speed up the progress of the project, provide construction quality, save investment and materials, for the smooth completion of the steel structure construction task plays an important role.
 
 
 
1.1 do a good job in the joint review and disclosure of construction drawings
 
 
 
Drawings are the basis of engineering construction, engineering project technical person in charge should organize relevant technical personnel to conduct division of labor review and digestion of drawings, the purpose of which is to make the construction unit and each participating unit familiar with the design drawings, understand the engineering characteristics and design intention, find out the technical problems to be solved, and develop solutions; The second is to solve the problems existing in the drawing, reduce the drawing errors, the drawing quality hidden trouble in the bud. At the same time, technical disclosure, the combination of construction and design, lifting steel structure and civil construction, steel structure and concrete prefabricated combination.
 
 
 
1.2 work out the construction organization and design of steel structure engineering carefully
 
 
 
Construction organization design is an important comprehensive technical document compiled by the construction unit to guide the whole process of engineering construction. It is a scientific management method. Construction units in the formulation of construction organization and construction plan, must be from man, machine, material, method, ring five aspects to establish the feasible concrete detailed rules for the implementation, the implementation of the plan, the implementation of the organization, to carry out the self-inspection, mutual inspection and ZhuanJian, all easy to appear the quality problem in controlled state, to ensure that the technical measures are effective and feasible. In the preparation and implementation of the construction organization design process should be done extensive and in-depth research, to the construction personnel, to do everyone check. In steel structure engineering, the fabrication process and installation construction organization design should be worked out respectively for the fabrication stage and installation stage. The content of the production process shall include the quality standards and technical requirements of each production stage, as well as the specific measures to ensure the quality of the product. The construction organization design of steel structure installation project includes the establishment of quality assurance system and technical management system, the measures and methods of quality and progress control, and the arrangement of construction period.
 
 
 
2 attach importance to the quality control of steel structure foundation engineering......
 
 
 
The quality control of steel structure foundation project generally refers to the quality control of embedded bolts of steel structure foundation. Embedded bolts are the first step of the whole project construction and also a very critical step. They are the foundation of the whole project. When construction foundation embedded bolts, first get familiar with the drawing, understand the intention of the drawing, should make the installation template. The embedded bolts are positioned on the main bar and the formwork of the column with two mounting formwork and reinforcing steel bars to ensure that the embedded bolts are not displaced by the construction of civil concrete. In this way, the spacing and height between each set of bolts can be controlled within the allowable error range; At the same time, protect the bolt thread from damage during concrete pouring. After the completion of civil engineering, use theodolite and level to check the elevation and axis of anchor bolts and make a record. And handed over a process acceptance.   
 
 
 
 
 
3 steel structure production engineering quality control......
 
 
 
The construction of steel structure engineering usually goes through two stages: factory fabrication and site installation. Most of the steel structure engineering is carried out in the factory workshop. Due to the quality of the steel structure components processed and manufactured in the factory, the on-site installation of the steel structure engineering and the safety and stability of the overall structure are of great importance. Therefore, steel structure manufacturers must have the corresponding enterprise qualification, production scale, technical capacity, mechanical equipment and advanced technology level.
 
 
 
Generally, the production process of steel structure is divided into: laying-out → blanking → jigsaw → cutting → group → submerged arc welding → drilling → assembly → rectifying molding → blanking of riveter parts → fabrication and assembly → welding and welding inspection → anti-rust treatment, painting, numbering → acceptance of components. In the steel structure production, according to the steel structure production process, grasp the key procedures for quality control, such as the control of the processing of key parts, the main components of the process, measures, the use of processing equipment, process equipment.
 
 
 
4 attach importance to quality control of welding engineering......
 
 
 
Welding engineering is the most important link in the fabrication and installation of steel structure. At present, most steel structures are manufactured with automatic submerged arc welder, some with semi-automatic gas shielded welder, and some with manual welding.
 
 
 
Welding quality problems are more in the manual weld, these problems are: welding tumor, slag, pores, not through welding, biting edge, wrong side, weld size deviation, no need to arc plate, welding deion is not corrected, splash cleaning is not clean. In view of this situation, the steel structure before welding, check the certificate of approval to the electrode, use according to the specifications, welders must be certified license, weld surface must not have crack, flash, a, secondary weld shall have porosity, slag, crater crack, level of weld shall bite edge, under welding defects, such as a, level 2 weld nondestructive testing, in accordance with requirements in the weld and the parts of the rules to check the welder's seal. Unqualified weld shall not be disposed without authorization, and shall not be disposed after the modification process is determined. The number of weld repair in the same part shall not exceed 2 times.    
 
 
 
 
 
Installation quality control of steel components......
 
 
 
The steel structure shall be installed on site after the completion of the project. Prior to the installation of the steel structure, the quality of the members shall be checked, and permanent deion and defects of the members shall be disposed when the allowable values are exceeded.
 
 
 
The installation of the steel column should check whether the pad iron under the column bottom plate is solid and flat to prevent the instability of the anchor bolt under the column bottom plate; Whether the column is vertical and has no displacement. In the installation project, temporary support measures should be taken before the structure has formed a stable system.
 
 
 
When the steel structure is installed to form a space fixed unit and is qualified for acceptance, the construction unit is required to fill the space of column bottom plate and foundation top surface with expanded concrete for a second time. Finally, check the perpendicularity and overall plane bending of the steel structure.
 
 
 
Quality control of steel structure fastener connection......
 
 
 
The quality control of fastener connection of steel structure mainly emphasizes the quality control of high strength bolt connection. The construction quality control of high-strength bolt connection project is completed from the following aspects:
 
 
 
6.1 first of all, steel structure engineering must pay attention to the machining quality of the friction surface of high-strength bolts and the protection before installation to prevent pollution and corrosion. In addition, anti-slip coefficient test of friction surface of high-strength bolts should be conducted before installation, factory certificate and batch number of high-strength bolts should be checked, and axial force test of high-strength bolts with different batch Numbers should be conducted regularly.
 
 
 
6.2 high strength bolts shall be installed free of tapping and hole expansion; Therefore, certain tire support die should be prepared to control the deion of the steel structure and practical fixing measures should be taken to ensure the dimensional stability of the steel structure during transportation.  
 
 
 
6.3 during the installation of steel structure, the laminated contact surface shall be smooth, the contact surface shall be greater than 75%, and the edge gap shall not be greater than 0.8mm. The installation technology of high-strength bolts, including operation sequence, installation method, tightening sequence, initial twist and final twist, should be strictly controlled and checked. The torque wrench of screwing bolts should be calibrated. The end of the screw should be checked one by one, under the screw, over the screw should be added or replaced.  
 
 
 
 
 
7 steel structure derusting and coating engineering......
 
 
 
Steel structure derusting and coating is the most easily neglected part of steel structure engineering. Steel structure derusting is divided into manual derusting and mechanical derusting. The construction personnel shall adopt different derusting methods according to the requirements of the drawing and the derusting grade. Brush engineering quality control should be done in the steel structure before the brush, the surface of the painted components must not have welding slag, oil, water and burr and other foreign matters, the number of brush times and thickness should meet the design requirements. To coating material must have certificate of quality, project of coating of fireproof coating must be constructed by the construction unit that fire prevention place approves.
 
 
 
8 color steel plate construction quality control......
 
 
 
Color steel plate engineering is another important part of steel structure engineering. The quality of construction directly affects the use of steel structure engineering. At present, there are a lot of color steel plate.
 
 
 
But color plate construction problems are concentrated, such as: color plate joints, color plate accessories production and installation node processing is not fine, unreliable, maintenance of structural leakage, color plate perception quality uneven, deion, scratch, pollution, etc..
 
 
 
Therefore, the pressure color plate installation quality control mainly includes: pressure color plate after entering the site, to conduct the appearance and qualification inspection, and review the installation accuracy of steel components related to the pressure plate construction and installation, purlin removal of the installation of weld coating and splash, and coated with anti-rust paint anti-corrosion treatment. Color plate installation, to prepare a reasonable installation process sequence.     
 
 
 
How to carry out quality control in the construction of steel structure engineering production and installation units is mainly through the relevant departments with quality control functions of full-time and part-time personnel in quality control to perform their own responsibilities. Its quality control method is mainly through the preparation and review of the relevant technical documents, reports, through the field process inspection and final inspection, and conduct necessary tests and other methods.
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