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  • 钢结构吊装安全防护措施
  • 本站编辑:杭州科宝钢业有限公司发布日期:2019-11-22 21:20 浏览次数:
钢结构安全操作的一般要求:
 
1.吊装前应编制结构吊装施工组织设计或制定施工方案,明确起重吊装安全技术要点和保证安全技术措施。须经有关技术部门审核、批准后,方可进行。
 
2.施工队负责人必须对工程的高处作业安全技术负责,并建立相应的责任制。
 
3.所有参加吊装人员必须先进行体格检查,年老体弱、患有高血压、心脏病、癫痫病等患者不得从事吊装工作。
 
4.在开始吊装作业前,必须对吊装人员进行安全技术教育和安全技术交底和培训;配备好安全防护用品;熟悉吊装工程内容、安装方法、程序、使用的机具性能,安全技术要点和措施;学习有关安全技术操作规程和各项安全技术规章制度,并严格执行。
5.吊装工作开始前,应组织有关部门,根据吊装方案要求,对运输和吊装起重设备以及所用索具、吊环、夹具、卡具、缆风绳等的规格、技术性能进行仔细、全面的检查或试验;起重机械要进行试运转,发现机件转动不灵活或有磨损、损坏、松动等现象,应视情况修理或对已磨损严重或有隐患的及时更换;滑轮组和机械的轴承等转动部分应加润滑油,经检查合格方可吊装。重要构件在正式吊装前,应进行试吊,检查各部受力情况,当一切正常,才可进行正式吊装。所有吊装机具在吊装进行中还应定期检查,发现问题随时处理。
 
6.高空作业中的安全标志、工具、仪表、电气设施必须在施工前加以检查,确认其是否完好,方能投入使用。
 
7.在施工前和施工过程中,要做好现场清理,清除一切障碍物,以利于吊装安全操作。
 
8.吊装作业应执行交接班制度,在交接班时,应进行吊装作业有关安全注意事项等内容的交接工作。吊装工具应在交接班时进行安全检查,已磨损或有隐患的必须及时更换。
 
9.禁止斜吊,斜吊会造成超负荷及钢丝绳出槽,甚至造成拉断绳索。斜吊还会使重物在离开地面后发生快速摆动,可能碰伤人或其他物体。
 
10.起重机应避免带载行走,如需要短距离带载行走时,载荷不得超过允许起重量的70%,构件离地面不得大于50cm,并将构件转至正前方,拉好溜绳,控制构件摆动。
 
11.起吊构件时,提升或下降要平稳,避免紧急制动或冲击。专人指挥,信号清楚、响亮、明确,严禁违章作业。构件安装后必须检查其质量,确实安全可靠后方可卸扣。每天工作必须达到安全部位,方可收工。
 
12.严禁起吊重物长时间悬挂在空中,作业中遇突发故障应采取措施,将重物降落到安全地方,并关闭发动机或切断电源后进行检修。在突然停电时应立即把所有控制器拨到零位,断开电源总开关,并采取措施,使重物降到地面。
 
13.起重机的吊钩和吊环严禁补焊,当吊钩吊环表面有裂纹严重磨损或危险断面及有永久变形时必须预以更换。
General requirements for safe operation of steel structures:
 
 
 
1. Before hoisting, the organization and design of structural hoisting construction shall be compiled or the construction scheme shall be formulated, and the key technical points of hoisting safety and technical measures to ensure safety shall be clearly defined. Only after being examined and approved by the relevant technical departments can it be carried out.
 
 
 
2. The person in charge of the construction team must be responsible for the safety technology of the operation at the height of the project and establish the corresponding responsibility system.
 
 
 
3. All personnel who participate in hoisting must have a physical examination first. Patients who are old and weak, suffering from hypertension, heart disease, epilepsy and other diseases are not allowed to engage in hoisting work.
 
 
 
4. Before starting the hoisting operation, the hoisting personnel must be provided with safety technology education, disclosure and training of safety technology; Equipped with safety protective equipment; Familiar with hoisting project content, installation method, procedure, machine performance, safety technical points and measures; Learn safety technical operating procedures and safety technical rules and regulations, and strictly implement.
 
 
 
5. Before the lifting work starts, relevant departments should be organized to carry out a careful and comprehensive inspection or test on the specifications and technical performance of transportation and lifting equipment as well as the used rigging, lifting rings, clamps, clamps and wind ropes, etc. according to the requirements of the lifting plan; Lifting machinery to carry out test operation, found that the rotation of the parts is not flexible or wear, damage, loose phenomenon, should be repaired according to the situation or have serious wear or have hidden trouble in a timely manner to replace; Pulley block and mechanical bearings and other rotating parts should be added lubricating oil, after inspection qualified before lifting. Before the formal lifting of important components, the test should be carried out to check the stress of each part. When everything is normal, the formal lifting can be carried out. All lifting machines and tools in the lifting process should also be regularly checked, found problems at any time to deal with.
 
 
 
6. Safety signs, tools, instruments and electrical facilities must be checked before construction to confirm whether they are in good condition before being put into use.
 
 
 
7. Before and during construction, the site shall be cleaned and all obstacles shall be removed to facilitate safe lifting operation.
 
 
 
8. The hoisting operation shall implement the handover system. During the handover, the hoisting operation shall carry out the handover of safety precautions and other contents. Lifting tools should be in the transition of safety inspection, wear or hidden trouble must be replaced in a timely manner.
 
 
 
9. Prohibit slant crane, which will cause overload and wire rope groove, or even cause the rope break. The slant also causes the weight to swing quickly after it leaves the ground, possibly hitting someone or something else.
 
 
 
10. The crane shall avoid walking with load. If the crane needs to walk with load for a short distance, the load shall not exceed 70% of the allowable lifting weight, and the members shall not be more than 50cm from the ground.
 
 
 
11. When lifting components, lift or descend steadily to avoid emergency braking or impact. Specially-assigned personnel command, signal clear, loud, clear, no illegal operation. The quality of components must be checked after installation to ensure safety and reliability before shackle. Work every day must reach the safe place, can stop.
 
 
 
12. It is forbidden to lift heavy objects hanging in the air for a long time. In case of sudden failure during the operation, measures should be taken to land the heavy objects in a safe place, and the engine should be shut down or the power supply should be cut off for maintenance. In case of sudden power failure, all controllers should be imtely set to zero, disconnect the main power switch, and take measures to make heavy objects to the ground.
 
 
 
13. The lifting hook and lifting ring of the crane are strictly forbidden to repair welding. When there are cracks on the surface of the lifting ring of the lifting hook, serious wear or dangerous section and permanent deion, it must be replaced in advance.
 
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